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Sunday, December 3, 2023

Ecuador’s Cloud Forest: Biodiversity Jewel under Threat

LifestyleEcuador's Cloud Forest: Biodiversity Jewel under Threat

Nestled in the heart of Ecuador lies the Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve, an ecosystem shrouded in mist and teeming with unique species. Its tranquil ambiance is frequently interrupted by the sound of droplets on leaves and the melodic calls of native birds.

Antony Flores, an expert local guide, directs attention to a large spectacled bear, South America’s sole bear species, feasting on aguacatillos. These bears, synonymous with the fictional Paddington Bear, are dwindling in numbers. There are now an estimated 10,000 left across the northern Andes, classified as “vulnerable” on the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list.

Ecuador, though small in area, boasts an impressive biodiversity. Most are familiar with the Galápagos islands, known for its unique species and connection to Charles Darwin’s evolutionary studies. Yet, the Ecuadorean cloud forest of the Chocó region remains relatively obscured, despite its immense ecological significance.

The Chocó region, located between the Andes and the Pacific coast, stands out as a biodiversity hotspot. It shelters around 3% of the globe’s plant species and a remarkable number of endemic bird species. The cloud forest’s beauty is amplified by its colorful orchids and bromeliads. Apart from the Andean bear, this forest also houses more than 500 bird species, including the vermilion-feathered Andean cock-of-the-rock, vibrant tanagers, and over 100 species of hummingbird. Mammals like the olinguito and the elusive jaguars, ocelots, and pumas add to its rich tapestry of life.

Cloud forests remain vital sanctuaries for flora and fauna due to their rugged terrain which deters agricultural conversion. However, the Ecuadorean Chocó faces significant threats, including deforestation for palm plantations, hunting, and mining. Despite these challenges, local conservation efforts continue to sprout.

A shining example is the Bellavista Lodge and Nature Reserve. A beautiful 400-hectare area offering a panoramic view of the surrounding Chocó, it was established by British traveler Richard Parsons in the early ’90s. Parsons notes, “the forest comes back incredibly quickly, if you give it the chance.”

Encouragingly, the movement for cloud forest conservation is gaining traction. Many national parks are expanding, and anti-logging and poaching laws are more stringently enforced. The Mashpi Cloud Forest Reserve stands testament to the fruitful union of conservation and sustainable tourism. This reserve, a mere three-hour drive from Quito, offers visitors a close encounter with its vibrant ecosystem.

Estuardo Lima, a seasoned naturalist guide at Mashpi, paints a somber picture of the forest’s current status, emphasizing the rapid reduction of its expanse in recent years. Nonetheless, with the increasing partnership between sustainable tourism and conservation, there’s hope that the vanishing glory of Ecuador’s cloud forests can be restored.


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